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Quadruple marker with graph
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Quad marker with graph test is also known as the Quadruple test. This test measures the levels of four important substances in the placenta namely alpha fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, estriol, and inhibin A. This test is advised to women who are 15 to 20 weeks pregnant. It analyses the probability of the unborn baby to have certain genetic disorders like Down’s, Edward’s syndrome, neural tube defects, and sometimes multiple pregnancies.

Why is Quad Marker test With Graph done?
To diagnose Down syndrome

To diagnose neural tube defects

To diagnose the failure of closure of the abdomen in the fetus.

To diagnose multiple pregnancies

To diagnose miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy

What does Quad Marker test With Graph Measure?
This test measures four markers which include AFP, HCG, estriol, and inhibin A in the blood. As there are four markers involved, it is known as the Quad Marker test.

AFP is a protein which is produced by the fetus. If the levels of AFP are high, it indicates neural tube defects in the fetus or any case of incomplete closure of the fetus abdomen.

HCG hormone is produced by cells of the placenta. If the levels of HCG are low, it indicates a miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy. Whereas, if the levels of HCG are high this indicates multiple pregnancies.

Estriol is a form of the hormone estrogen which is present in both fetus and placenta. If the levels of estriol are low, it indicates the risk of the baby getting delivered with Down syndrome, especially when the levels of AFP are low and HCG are high.

Inhibin A is a hormone which is produced by the placenta. It is a dimer which means it has two parts. It is also sometimes referred to as DIA or dimeric inhibin A. In the 14 to 17 weeks of gestation (pregnancy), the levels of inhibin A in maternal blood slightly decrease and then rise again. Increased levels of Inhibin A indicates fetus with Down syndrome. Inhibin A enhances the sensitivity as well as the specificity in order to correctly identify cases of Down syndrome.

If the levels of all these four markers are abnormal, there can be the presence of neural tube defects like spina bifida (spinal cord fails to develop properly), anencephaly (absence of brain, skull, and scalp), and multiple pregnancies (twins or triplets).

Females who are 35 years or more, have a family history of birth defects, or have diabetes or are using insulin have a higher risk of getting abnormal values of these markers. Exposure to high levels of radiation or having the viral infection during pregnancy can also be considered as possible risk factors associated with these high levels. This test is also helpful to indicate any complications in the fetus after birth.

Tests Included

    This test includes (3) parameters

  • AFP
  • Beta HCG
  • E3 and Inhibin A
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